Understanding of Weather
Understanding  of Weather

The weather affects our life in several ways. During the summer, we need fans and air coolers to stay cool, and we wear light-colored clothing to reflect and escape from the heat. 

During the winter, we wear dark colors and heavy clothing to insulate ourselves from the chilly cold weather.

Similarly, we need an umbrella or wear a raincoat during the rainy season to protect ourselves from getting wet in rain. 

Interestingly, the climate of an area varies on a daily and weekly basis. In fact, sometimes, weather can be a complicated phenomenon that may fluctuate over very brief intervals (like hour to hour).

Our everyday activities are, thus, determined by the weather forecast on a given day. The daily weather report is available on the radio, television, the internet, and even in the newspaper.

Typically, a weather report includes information such as humidity; daytime and nighttime temperatures; maximum and lowest temperatures; rainfall projections for the day and week, and a forecast for the day's weather.

Definition of Weather

Weather refers to the condition of the atmosphere based on various factors such as wind direction, wind speed, humidity, temperature, pressure, sunlight, and precipitation at a certain location and time.

A glance at various factors or elements of weather

Various factors that affect weather are as follows:




Wind velocity and direction.


Thus, the weather is rooted in all these aspects which add up together. The distinct components are the determining factors of the weather. Accordingly, weather is not consistent and fluctuates from place to location and among ecosystems. We shall focus on three main factors of weather. 




Elements of Weather

The humidity, rainfall, temperature, wind speed, and other factors are called the elements of the weather which are described below:  

Definition of Humidity

Humidity is a measurement or representation of the quantity of moisture (water vapor) in the air or environment.

When the quantity of water vapor is large, it indicates that the humidity is high; as a result, the perspiration produced by the body does not readily evaporate, and the individual feels unpleasant and hot.

When the quantity of water vapor in the air is low, the humidity is low, and as a result, perspiration readily evaporates off the body, leaving the individual feeling comfortable and cool.

The relative humidity is expressed in terms of a percentage. 100 percent humidity indicates that the air is completely saturated with water vapor.


Rainfall is the volume of water droplets that return to the ground following the condensation of water vapors. 

When the temperature is too low, these cloud droplets solidify into ice crystals and fall to the ground as snowfall. 

After sunset in the winter, the temperature drops, generating condensation of water vapor near the ground. These droplets generate fog by hanging in the air.

The rain gauge is the tool used to measure rainfall. It is a measurement cylinder with a funnel placed on its top that is used to collect rainwater. The volume of rainwater collected in the measuring cylinder represents rainfall.

A rain gauge is a measuring cylinder with a funnel for collecting precipitation. A rain gauge monitors rainfall in millimeters in a specific location (unit).


The weather is mostly influenced by the sun, which generates heat and raises temperatures. The sun gives both light and heat to Earth, required for the generation of energy. The sun's heat is collected and stored by the earth's surface, seas, and atmosphere, which plays a significant part in defining the local climate.

Therefore, it is evident that weather variations are driven by the sun, since changes in the sun's heat will alter the atmosphere more often. Additionally, sunrise and sunset times vary throughout the year.

Maximum temperature and minimum temperature 

The maximum temperature is the greatest temperature recorded in a day, while the minimum temperature is the minimum temperature recorded in a day. The Maximum-and-Minimum thermometer monitors the highest and lowest temperatures of a given day.

Typically, the highest temperature is recorded in the afternoon, while the lowest temperature is reported in the early morning.

Wind Velocity

It is a result of the disparity in air pressure. During the summer, winds from the Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengal provide rain in India, while in the winter, winds from the mountains of northern India create frigid weather (winter season).

What causes varying weather conditions?

The weather variations are caused by the sun, its heat, and the influence of the sun's heat on the atmosphere. The Sun is composed of extremely hot gasses; hence, absorption or reflection of heat by the surface of the Earth, the ocean, and the atmosphere has a significant impact on the local climate.

There are several reasons why the weather fluctuates within a short timeframe. For instance, in the morning, it may be sunny and bright, whereas, by the time it is afternoon, you may see dark clouds, followed by heavy rainfall.

Other elements that influence a location's climate include

1. Distance from the coast: The proximity of a region to the ocean influences its climate. The climates of coastal cities like Mumbai and Chennai are moderate (neither too hot nor too cold). Away from the shore, the temperature is harsh, with very hot summers and extremely cold winters, like in Delhi.

2. Altitude or height above sea level: Climate changes happen even with changes in height. As you go to a higher altitude, you shall come across a colder climate as seen in mountains. If you still go to a very high altitude such as the Himalayas, you may experience extremely cold weather.

3. Humidity: Humidity is another factor that influences the local climate. Cities such as Kolkata and Kerala have a high level of humidity, while places like Rajasthan and Haryana have low relative humidity levels.

By observing the weather's elements, it is possible to anticipate the weather in advance; this is known as weather forecasting. The Meteorological Department of the government prepares weather reports by collecting data on temperature, wind, and other variables to forecast the weather.

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